Thomas edison

Biography
1. People often say Edison was a genius. He answered, Genius is hard work, stick to it iveness, and common sense.Thomas Alva Edison was born February 11, 1847 in Milan, Ohio (pronounced MY lan). In 1854, when he was seven, the family moved to Michigan, where Edison spent the rest of his childhood.Al, as he was called as a boy, went to school only a short time. He did so poorly that his mother, a former teacher, taught her son at home. Al learned to love reading, a habit he kept for the rest of his life. He also liked to make experiments in the basement.Al not only played hard, but also worked hard. At the age of 12 he sold fruit, snacks and newspapers on a train as a news butcher. (Trains were the newest way to travel, cutting through the American wilderness.) He even printed his own newspaper, the Grand Trunk Herald, on a moving train.At 15, Al roamed the country as a tramp telegrapher. Using a kind of alphabet called Morse Code, he sent and received messages over the telegraph. Even though he was already losing his hearing, he could still hear the clicks of the telegraph. In the next seven years he moved over a dozen times, often working all night, taking messages for trains and even for the Union Army during the Civil War. In his spare time, he took things apart to see how they worked. Finally, he decided to invent things himself.After the failure of his first invention, the electric vote recorder, Edison moved to New York City. There he improved the way the stock ticker worked. This was his big break. By 1870 his company was manufacturing his stock ticker in Newark, New Jersey. He also improved the telegraph, making it send up to four messages at once.During this time he married his first wife, Mary Stilwell, on Christmas Day, 1871. They had three children Marion, Thomas, Jr., and William. Wanting a quieter spot to do more inventing, Edison moved from Newark to Menlo Park, New Jersey, in 1876. There he built his most famous laboratory.He was not alone in Menlo Park. Edison hired muckers to help him out. These muckers came from all over the world to make their fortune in America. They often stayed up all night working with the chief mucker, Edison himself. He is sometime called the Wizard of Menlo Park because he created two of his three greatest works there.The phonograph was the first machine that could record the sound of someones voice and play it back. In 1877, Edison recorded the first words on a piece of tin foil. He recited the nursery rhyme Mary Had a Little Lamb, and the phonograph played the words back to him. This was invented by a man whose hearing was so poor that he thought of himself as deaf Starting in 1878, Edison and the muckers worked on one of his greatest achievements. The electric light system was more than just the incandescent lamp, or light bulb. Edison also designed a system of power plants that make the electrical power and the wiring that brings it to peoples homes. Imagine all the things you plug in. What would your life be like without them?

In 1885, one year after his first wife died, Edison met a 20 year old woman named Mina Miller. Her father was an inventor in Edisons home state of Ohio. Edison taught her Morse Code. Even when others were around, the couple could talk to each other secretly. One day he tapped a question into her hand would she marry him? She tapped back the word yes.Mina Edison wanted a home in the country, so Edison bought Glenmont, a 29 room home with 13 1 2 acres of land in West Orange, New Jersey. They married on February 24, 1886 and had three children Madeleine, Charles and Theodore.A year later, Edison built a laboratory in West Orange that was ten times larger than the one in Menlo Park. In fact, it was one of the largest laboratories in the world, almost as famous as Edison himself. Well into the night, laboratory buildings glowed with electric light while the Wizard and his muckers turned Edisons dreams into inventions. Once, the chief mucker worked for three days straight, taking only short naps. Edison earned half of his 1,093 patents in West Orange.

But Edison did more than invent. Here Edison could think of ways to make a better phonograph, for example, build it with his muckers, have them test it and make it work, then manufacture it in the factories that surrounded his laboratory. This improved phonograph could then be sold throughout the world.Not only did Edison improve the phonograph several times, but he also worked on X rays, storage batteries, and the first talking doll. At West Orange he also worked on one of his greatest ideas motion pictures, or movies. The inventions made here changed the way we live even today. He worked here until his death on October 18, 1931, at the age of 84.By that time, everyone had heard of the Wizard and looked up to him. The whole world called him a genius. But he knew that having a good idea was not enough. It takes hard work to make dreams into reality. That is why Edison liked to say, Genius is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration. .....

Edisons Early Years
2. Thomas A. Edisons forebears lived in New Jersey until their loyalty to the British crown during the American Revolution drove them to Nova Scotia, Canada. From there, later generations relocated to Ontario and fought the Americans in the War of 1812. Edisons mother, Nancy Elliott, was originally from New York until her family moved to Vienna, Canada, where she met Sam Edison, Jr., whom she later married. When Sam became involved in an unsuccessful insurrection in Ontario in the 1830s, he was forced to flee to the United States and in 1839 they made their home in Milan, Ohio.Thomas Alva Edison was born to Sam and Nancy on February 11, 1847, in Milan, Ohio. Known as Al in his youth, Edison was the youngest of seven children, four of whom survived to adulthood. Edison tended to be in poor health when young.To seek a better fortune, Sam Edison moved the family to Port Huron, Michigan, in 1854, where he worked in the lumber business.

Edison was a poor student. When a schoolmaster called Edison addled, his furious mother took him out of the school and proceeded to teach him at home. Edison said many years later, My mother was the making of me. She was so true, so sure of me, and I felt I had some one to live for, some one I must not disappoint.At an early age, he showed a fascination for mechanical things and for chemical experiments.In 1859, Edison took a job selling newspapers and candy on the Grand Trunk Railroad to Detroit. In the baggage car, he set up a laboratory for his chemistry experiments and a printing press, where he started the Grand Trunk Herald, the first newspaper published on a train. An accidental fire forced him to stop his experiments on board.

Around the age of twelve, Edison lost almost all his hearing. There are several theories as to what caused his hearing loss. Some attribute it to the aftereffects of scarlet fever which he had as a child. Others blame it on a conductor boxing his ears after Edison caused a fire in the baggage car, an incident which Edison claimed never happened. Edison himself blamed it on an incident in which he was grabbed by his ears and lifted to a train. He did not let his disability discourage him, however, and often treated it as an asset, since it made it easier for him to concentrate on his experiments and research. Undoubtedly, though, his deafness made him more solitary and shy in dealings with others. .....

Telegraph Work
3. In 1862, Edison rescued a three year old from a track where a boxcar was about to roll into him. The grateful father, J.U. MacKenzie, taught Edison railroad telegraphy as a reward. That winter, he took a job as a telegraph operator in Port Huron. In the meantime, he continued his scientific experiments on the side. Between 1863 and 1867, Edison migrated from city to city in the United States taking available telegraph jobs.In 1868 Edison moved to Boston where he worked in the Western Union office and worked even more on his inventions. In January 1869 Edison resigned his job, intending to devote himself fulltime to inventing things. His first invention to receive a patent was the electric vote recorder, in June 1869. Daunted by politicians reluctance to use the machine, he decided that in the future he would not waste time inventing things that no one wanted.Edison moved to New York City in the middle of 1869. A friend, Franklin L. Pope, allowed Edison to sleep in a room at Samuel Laws Gold Indicator Company where he was employed. When Edison managed to fix a broken machine there, he was hired to manage and improve the printer machines.

During the next period of his life, Edison became involved in multiple projects and partnerships dealing with the telegraph. In October 1869, Edison formed with Franklin L. Pope and James Ashley the organization Pope, Edison and Co. They advertised themselves as electrical engineers and constructors of electrical devices. Edison received several patents for improvements to the telegraph. The partnership merged with the Gold and Stock Telegraph Co. in 1870. Edison also established the Newark Telegraph Works in Newark, NJ, with William Unger to manufacture stock printers. He formed the American Telegraph Works to work on developing an automatic telegraph later in the year. In 1874 he began to work on a multiplex telegraphic system for Western Union, ultimately developing a quadruplex telegraph, which could send two messages simultaneously in both directions. When Edison sold his patent rights to the quadruplex to the rival Atlantic & Pacific Telegraph Co., a series of court battles followed in which Western Union won. Besides other telegraph inventions, he also developed an electric pen in 1875.His personal life during this period also brought much change. Edisons mother died in 1871, and later that year, he married a former employee, Mary Stilwell, on Christmas Day. While Edison clearly loved his wife, their relationship was fraught with difficulties, primarily his preoccupation with work and her constant illnesses. Edison would often sleep in the lab and spent much of his time with his male colleagues. Nevertheless, their first child, Marion, was born in February 1873, followed by a son, Thomas, Jr., born on January 1876. Edison nicknamed the two Dot and Dash, referring to telegraphic terms. A third child, William Leslie was born in October 1878.

Edison opened a new laboratory in Menlo Park, NJ, in 1876. This site later become known as an invention factory, since they worked on several different inventions at any given time there. Edison would conduct numerous experiments to find answers to problems. He said, I never quit until I get what Im after. Negative results are just what Im after. They are just as valuable to me as positive results. Edison liked to work long hours and expected much from his employees.In 1877, Edison worked on a telephone transmitter that greatly improved on Alexander Graham Bells work with the telephone. His transmitter made it possible for voices to be transmitted at higer volume and with greater clarity over standard telephone lines.Edisons experiments with the telephone and the telegraph led to his invention of the phonograph in 1877. It occurred to him that sound could be recorded as indentations on a rapidly moving piece of paper. He eventually formulated a machine with a tinfoil coated cylinder and a diaphragm and needle. When Edison spoke the words Mary had a little lamb into the mouthpiece, to his amazement the machine played the phrase back to him. The Edison Speaking Phonograph Company was established early in 1878 to market the machine, but the initial novelty value of the phonograph wore off, and Edison turned his attention elsewhere.Edison focused on the electric light system in 1878, setting aside the phonograph for almost a decade. With the backing of financiers, The Edison Electric Light Co. was formed on November 15 to carry out experiments with electric lights and to control any patents resulting from them. In return for handing over his patents to the company, Edison received a large share of stock. Work continued into 1879, as the lab attempted not only to devise an incandescent bulb, but an entire electrical lighting system that could be supported in a city. A filament of carbonized thread proved to be the key to a long lasting light bulb. Lamps were put in the laboratory, and many journeyed out to Menlo Park to see the new discovery. A special public exhibition at the lab was given for a multitude of amazed visitors on New Years Eve.Edison set up an electric light factory in East Newark in 1881, and then the following year moved his family and himself to New York and set up a laboratory there.

In order to prove its viability, the first commercial electric light system was installed on Pearl Street in the financial district of Lower Manhattan in 1882, bordering City Hall and two newspapers. Initially, only four hundred lamps were lit, a year later, there were 513 customers using 10,300 lamps. Edison formed several companies to manufacture and operate the apparatus needed for the electrical lighting system the Edison Electric Illuminating Company of New York, the Edison Machine Works, the Edison Electric Tube Company, and the Edison Lamp Works. This lighting system was also taken abroad to the Paris Lighting Exposition in 1881, the Crystal Palace in London in 1882, the coronation of the czar in Moscow, and led to the establishment of companies in several European countries.The success of Edisons lighting system could not deter his competitors from developing their own, different methods. One result was a battle between the proponents of DC current, led by Edison, and AC current, led by George Westinghouse. Both sides attacked the limitations of each system. Edison, in particular, pointed to the use of AC current for electrocution as proof of its danger. DC current could not travel over as long a system as AC, but the AC generators were not as efficient as the ones for DC. By 1889, the invention of a device that combined an AC induction motor with a DC dynamo offered the best performance of all, and AC current became dominant. The Edison General Electric Co. merged with Thomson Houston in 1892 to become General Electric Co., effectively removing Edison further from the electrical field of business. .....

An Improved Phonograph
4. Edisons wife, Mary, died on August 9, 1884, possibly from a brain tumor. Edison remarried to Mina Miller on February 24, 1886, and, with his wife, moved into a large mansion named Glenmont in West Orange, New Jersey. Edisons children from his first marriage were distanced from their fathers new life, as Edison and Mina had their own family Madeleine, born on 1888, Charles on 1890, and Theodore on 1898. Unlike Mary, who was sickly and often remained at home, and was also deferential to her husbands wishes, Mina was an active woman, devoting much time to community groups, social functions, and charities, as well as trying to improve her husbands often careless personal habits.In 1887, Edison had built a new, larger laboratory in West Orange, New Jersey. The facility included a machine shop, phonograph and photograph departments, a library, and ancillary buildings for metallurgy, chemistry, woodworking, and galvanometer testings.While Edison had neglected further work on the phonograph, others had moved forward to improve it. In particular, Chichester Bell and Charles Sumner Tainter developed an improved machine that used a wax cylinder and a floating stylus, which they called a graphophone. They sent representatives to Edison to discuss a possible partnership on the machine, but Edison refused to collaborate with them, feeling that the phonograph was his invention alone. With this competition, Edison was stirred into action and resumed his work on the phonograph in 1887. Edison eventually adopted methods similar to Bell and Tainters in his own phonograph.

The phonograph was initially marketed as a business dictation machine. Entrepreneur Jesse H. Lippincott acquired control of most of the phonograph companies, including Edisons, and set up the North American Phonograph Co. in 1888. The business did not prove profitable, and when Lippincott fell ill, Edison took over the management. In 1894, the North American Phonograph Co. went into bankruptcy, a move which allowed Edison to buy back the rights to his invention. In 1896, Edison started the National Phonograph Co. with the intent of making phonographs for home amusement. Over the years, Edison made improvements to the phonograph and to the cylinders which were played on them, the early ones being made of wax. Edison introduced an unbreakable cylinder record, named the Blue Amberol, at roughly the same time he entered the disc phonograph market in 1912. The introduction of an Edison disc was in reaction to the overwhelming popularity of discs on the market in contrast to cylinders. Touted as being superior to the competitions records, the Edison discs were designed to be played only on Edison phonographs, and were cut laterally as opposed to vertically. The success of the Edison phonograph business, though, was always hampered by the companys reputation of choosing lower quality recording acts. In the 1920s, competition from radio caused business to sour, and the Edison disc business ceased production in 1929. .....

Other Ventures Ore milling and Cement
5. Another Edison interest was an ore milling process that would extract various metals from ore. In 1881, he formed the Edison Ore Milling Co., but the venture proved fruitless as there was no market for it. In 1887, he returned to the project, thinking that his process could help the mostly depleted Eastern mines compete with the Western ones. In 1889, the New Jersey and Pennsylvania Concentrating Works was formed, and Edison became absorbed by its operations and began to spend much time away from home at the mines in Ogdensburg, New Jersey. Although he invested much money and time into this project, it proved unsuccessful when the market went down and additional sources of ore in the Midwest were found.

Edison also became involved in promoting the use of cement and formed the Edison Portland Cement Co. in 1899. He tried to promote widespread use of cement for the construction of low cost homes and envisioned alternative uses for concrete in the manufacture of phonographs, furniture, refrigerators, and pianos. Unfortunately, Edison was ahead of his time with these ideas, as widespread use of concrete proved economically unfeasible at that time. .....

Motion Pictures
6. In 1888, Edison met Eadweard Muybridge at West Orange and viewed Muybridges zoopraxiscope. This machine used a circular disc with still photographs of the successive phases of movement around the circumference to recreate the illusion of movement. Edison declined to work with Muybridge on the device and decided to work on his own motion picture camera at his laboratory. As Edison put it in a caveat written the same year, I am experimenting upon an instrument which does for the eye what the phonograph does for the ear.The task of inventing the machine fell to Edisons associate William K. L. Dickson. Dickson initially experimented with a cylinder based device for recording images, before turning to a celluloid strip. In October of 1889, Dickson greeted Edisons return from Paris with a new device that projected pictures and contained sound. After more work, patent applications were made in 1891 for a motion picture camera, called a Kinetograph, and a Kinetoscope, a motion picture peephole viewer.Kinetoscope parlors opened in New York and soon spread to other major cities during 1894. In 1893, a motion picture studio, later dubbed the Black Maria (the slang name for a police paddy wagon which the studio resembled), was opened at the West Orange complex. Short films were produced using variety acts of the day. Edison was reluctant to develop a motion picture projector, feeling that more profit was to be made with the peephole viewers.

When Dickson aided competitors on developing another peephole motion picture device and the eidoloscope projection system, later to develop into the Mutoscope, he was fired. Dickson went on to form the American Mutoscope Co. along with Harry Marvin, Herman Casler, and Elias Koopman. Edison subsequently adopted a projector developed by Thomas Armat and Charles Francis Jenkins and re named it the Vitascope and marketed it under his name. The Vitascope premiered on April 23, 1896, to great acclaim.Competition from other motion picture companies soon created heated legal battles between them and Edison over patents. Edison sued many companies for infringement. In 1909, the formation of the Motion Picture Patents Co. brought a degree of cooperation to the various companies who were given licenses in 1909, but in 1915, the courts found the company to be an unfair monopoly.In 1913, Edison experimented with synchronizing sound to film. A Kinetophone was developed by his laboratory which synchronized sound on a phonograph cylinder to the picture on a screen. Although this initially brought interest, the system was far from perfect and disappeared by 1915. By 1918, Edison ended his involvement in the motion picture field. .....

Edisons Later Years
7. In 1911, Edisons companies were re organized into Thomas A. Edison, Inc. As the organization became more diversified and structured, Edison became less involved in the day to day operations, although he still had some decision making authority. The goals of the organization became more to maintain market viability than to produce new inventions frequently.A fire broke out at the West Orange laboratory in 1914, destroying 13 buildings. Although the loss was great, Edison spearheaded the rebuilding of the lot.When Europe became involved in World War I, Edison advised preparedness, and felt that technology would be the future of war. He was named head of the Naval Consulting Board in 1915, an attempt by the government to bring science into its defense program. Although mainly an advisory board, it was instrumental in the formation of a laboratory for the Navy which opened in 1923, although several of Edisons suggestions on the matter were disregarded. During the war, Edison spent much of his time doing naval research, in particular working on submarine detection, but he felt that the navy was not receptive to many of his inventions and suggestions.

In the 1920s, Edisons health became worse, and he began to spend more time at home with his wife. His relationship with his children was distant, although Charles was president of Thomas A. Edison, Inc. While Edison continued to experiment at home, he could not perform some experiments that he wanted to at his West Orange laboratory because the board would not approve them. One project that held his fascination during this period was the search for an alternative to rubber.Henry Ford, an admirer and friend of Edisons, reconstructed Edisons invention factory as a museum at Greenfield Village, Michigan, which opened during the 50th anniversary of Edisons electric light in 1929. The main celebration for Lights Golden Jubilee, co hosted by Ford and General Electric, took place in Dearborn along with a huge celebratory dinner in Edisons honor attended by notables such as President Hoover, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., George Eastman, Marie Curie, and Orville Wright. Edisons health, however, had declined to the point that he could not stay for the entire ceremony.For his last two years, a series of ailments caused his health to decline even more until he lapsed into a coma on October 14, 1931. He died on October 18, 1931, at his estate, Glenmont, in West Orange, New Jersey. .....

Early Inventive Career
8. In 1868 Edison became an independent inventor in Boston. Moving to New York the next year, he undertook inventive work for major telegraph companies. With money from those contracts he established a series of manufacturing shops in Newark, New Jersey, where he also employed experimental machinists to assist in his inventive work.Edison soon acquired a reputation as a first rank inventor. His work included stock tickers, fire alarms, methods of sending simultaneous messages on one wire, and an electrochemical telegraph to send messages by automatic machinery. The crowning achievement of this period was the quadruplex telegraph, which sent two messages simultaneously in each direction on one wire.The problems of interfering signals in multiple telegraphy and high speed in automatic transmission forced Edison to extend his study of electromagnetism and chemistry. As a result, he introduced electrical and chemical laboratories into his experimental machine shops.Near the end of 1875, observations of strange sparks in telegraph instruments led Edison into a public scientific controversy over what he called etheric force, which only later was understood to be radio waves. .....
Menlo Park
9. In 1876, Edison created a freestanding industrial research facility incorporating both a machine shop and laboratories. Here in Menlo Park, on the rail line between New York City and Philadelphia, he developed three of his greatest inventions.Urged by Western Union to develop a telephone that could compete with Alexander Graham Bells, Edison invented a transmitter in which a button of compressed carbon changed its resistance as it was vibrated by the sound of the users voice, a new principle that was used in telephones for the next century.While working on the telephone in the summer of 1877, Edison discovered a method of recording sound, and in the late fall he unveiled the phonograph. This astounding instrument brought him world fame as the Wizard of Menlo Park and the inventor of the age.Finally, beginning in the fall of 1878, Edison devoted thirty months to developing a complete system of incandescent electric lighting. During his lamp experiments, he noticed an electrical phenomenon that became known as the Edison effect, the basis for vacuum tube electronics.He left Menlo Park in 1881 to establish factories and offices in New York and elsewhere. Over the next five years he manufactured, improved, and installed his electrical system around the world. .....
West Orange Laboratory
10. In 1887, Edison built an industrial research laboratory in West Orange, New Jersey, that remained unsurpassed until the twentieth century. For four years it was the primary research facility for the Edison lighting companies, and Edison spent most of his time on that work. In 1888 and 1889, he concentrated for several months on a new version of the phonograph that recorded on wax cylinders.Edison worked with William Dickson from 1888 till 1893 on a motion picture camera. Although Edison had always had experimental assistants, this was the clearest instance of a co invention for which Edison received sole credit.In 1887 Edison also returned to experiments on the electromagnetic separation and concentration of low grade iron and gold ores, work he had begun in 1879. During the 1890s he built a full scale plant in northern New Jersey to process iron ore. This venture was Edisons most notable commercial failure. .....
Later Years
11. After the mining failure, Edison adapted some of the machinery to process Portland cement. A roasting kiln he developed became an industry standard. Edison cement was used for buildings, dams, and even Yankee Stadium.In the early years of the automobile industry there were hopes for an electric vehicle, and Edison spent the first decade of the twentieth century trying to develop a suitable storage battery. Although gas power won out, Edisons battery was used extensively in industry.In World War I the federal government asked Edison to head the Naval Consulting Board, which examined inventions submitted for military use. Edison worked on several problems, including submarine detectors and gun location techniques.By the time of his death in 1931, Edison had received 1,093 U.S. patents, a total still untouched by any other inventor. Even more important, he created a model for modern industrial research. .....
Learning about electricity
12. The Grand Trunk Railroad connected Port Huron to Detroit, the nearest big city, and the young Edison at 12, always fascinated by the steam locomotives and eager for adventure, got a job selling newspapers and candy on the train. Edison continued to devour science books and the newspapers, magazines, and novels he sold on the train. He later claimed that he had decided to read through all the books in the library but gave it up after reading about 10 books that were pretty dry reading.Around this time, Edison realized that his hearing was deteriorating, and this grew worse later in his life. His deafness has been attributed to various things, but was probably caused by a childhood illness or ear infections that went untreated. In those days, without penicillin or other antibiotics for treatment of illnesses and infection, deafness was fairly common, even in young people. Edison said that his deafness was actually an asset He said it allowed him to work with less distraction and to sleep deeply, undisturbed by outside sounds.As a teenager Edison was very enterprising. In Port Huron he opened two stands selling newspapers and magazines and hired other boys to run them. For about six months in 1862 he also published his own newspaper, the Weekly Herald, which he printed in the baggage car of the train with the help of a friendly conductor. It concerned itself largely with local news and railroad matters and attracted many subscribers along the Grand Trunks Michigan line.

Some of the profits Edison received from his various businesses went into building a small laboratory in one of the baggage cars. Bottles, batteries, and test tubes filled the shelves in the little lab, which thrived until one of his experiments involving phosphorous started a fire in the train car. The conductor ejected Edison, his laboratory, and his printing press at the next station But Edison kept his job on the railroad.Then his life took an unexpected turna telegraph operators young son wandered out onto the tracks in front of a rolling freight car. Edison ran out onto the tracks and snatched the child to safety. As a reward the childs grateful father offered to teach Al the intricate skills of railroad telegraphy. At 16, Edison had found a new career as a telegraph operator. The job demanded very fast thinking and sharp reflexes to turn codes into words and vice versa. Not only were the wages excellent, the position was prestigious. .....

Variations on the telegraph
13. Riding the rails, Edison learned about the new technology of telegraphy. Morses telegraph, patented in 1840, was the 19th centurys equivalent to the World Wide Web and Edison wanted to learn all he could about navigating this information superhighway.Telegraphers in those days were the links that joined the country together. In many respects the telegraph molded the world in which Edison matured. Major newspapers relied heavily on telegraph reports purchased from news services. The telephone had not yet been invented and email was a long way off For the next 4 years, Al went on the tramp, traveling around the South and Midwest as an itinerant telegrapher, that is, taking jobs as they came, never settling down in any one place for very long. Telegraphers translated messages into electric impulses and sent them over the ribbons of telegraph wires that stretched across the continent. Since telegraphers not only sent and received messages but had to keep the equipment running, Edison learned a lot about practical electricityhow batteries work, how to wire circuits, and all about electromagnetism. This curiosity spurred his first serious efforts at invention.In Boston in 1869, Edison earned his first patent, for an electrical vote recorder designed for the Massachusetts State Legislature. But he found that the politicians werent interested in speeding up their voting process, so they didnt want to use his machine. Edison later quipped that this experience taught him never to invent something people didnt want He refused to become discouraged or view anything as a failure. As he would say, Every wrong attempt discarded is a step forward. (5) .....
Starting a business starting a family
14. In 1871, Edison set up a workshop and laboratory in Newark, New Jersey, just across the Hudson River from New York City. Newark was known at the time for its community of fine machinists, the kind of people Edison needed to build his telegraph equipment. In that same year, he married Mary Stillwell, who worked for his Newark business.In 1874 Edison had his first big financial success with his quadruplex telegraph system. This was a way of sending more than one message in one direction over a single wirein this case, two messages in opposite directions simultaneously. Telegraph companies were eager for such a scheme because it let them send more messages over fewer wires, increasing their profits while cutting their costs.

The story goes something like this Thomas Edison approached the Western Union Telegraph Company with several inventions of his relating to the telegraph, especially the quadruplex telegraph system he had just completed. When asked how much he wanted for the inventions Edison thought of asking for about $2000, but instead he turned the question around and replied, Well suppose you make me an offer. Edison was amazed when they offered him $40,000 This was a lot of money for those days and it allowed him to fulfill his wish to become a full time inventor.Edison signed a highly profitable contract with Western Union, took the money to the New Jersey countryside, and built a laboratory complex at Menlo Park, nicknamed The Invention Factory. .....

The Invention Factory
15. Edison set up his new complex in rural Menlo Park, New Jersey in 1876. Menlo Park was a town on the main rail line between New York City and Philadelphia. He chose the location because the land was cheap and there was easy access to the resources of the cities (especially the rich investors Edison needed to support his work), but it didnt have the distractions of the big city.He had a large staff of specialists, ranging from machinists to physicists, who helped turn his ideas into realities. He created what he nicknamed The Invention Factory, a complex of a laboratory, machine shop, office, and a library. In short, he put everything he needed for inventing in one place.

The Menlo Park gang produced an incredible variety of inventions and improvements to existing inventions. They include the followingThe phonograph An improved telephone transmitter The electric pen (a machine that created a stencil that was could be used to make multiple copies of a document)The electric light bulbEdison worked long hours in his laboratory, quite unaware of the time. He would say, I owe my success to the fact that I never had a clock in my workroom. He would work for 16 hours at a stretch, gaining a reputation for not sleeping Actually, he took cat naps whenever he needed them and wherever he was located, sometimes snoozing in the middle of the day stretched out on the ground under a bush, on his workbench or on his cot located in the back of his laboratory.The Menlo Park Laboratory was equipped with 2,500 bottles of chemicals lining the wall and a pipe organ at the back, which was the focal point for after hours singing and beer drinking. Many times the various scientists and technicians would stay up all night inventing, working and munching on ham, crackers, beer, soda, and cheese. About midnight, Edison himself would sit down at the pipe organ and everyone would join in for a sing along. Many years later his employees would say that these were the happiest years of their lives. .....

Telephone
16. In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell patented his telephone. Edison, with the help of Charles Batchelor, came up with an invention that vastly improved the transmission of the speakers voice across the wires. The carbon button transmitter is a part of the mouthpiece of a telephone. Western Union wanted to get around Bells patents so they wouldnt have to pay Bell to use the technology hed invented, so they put Edison on the problem. His transmitter produced clearer, stronger sounds and is still used in most telephones today. .....
Phonograph
17. Edisons experiments with the telephone also got him thinking about ways to record telephone messages so they could be copied later, this idea was similar to the devices used with the telegraph to write down the dots and dashes of Morse code. But then Edison turned the problem in a new direction and started to think about recording soundany soundas something separate. He sketched and tested and modified ways to capture sound on the surfaces of cylinders or disks.In 1877, one of these designs worked He wrapped a thick sheet of tinfoil around a metal cylinder. Then, turning a crank that moved the cylinder along a screw and shouting into a cone attached to a thin diaphragm and needle (or stylus), Edison tested the new machine. When the sound waves of his speech vibrated the diaphragm, it moved the needle up and down, making dents in the tinfoil. Cranking the cylinder back to its original position and putting the needle back into the grooves it had made, Edison and his workers listened in amazement to the first recording of a human voiceEdison reciting Mary Had a Little Lamb.One of his first reactions to hearing the playback was to be worried He often said, I was always afraid of things that worked the first time. Originally, Edison didnt think of using the phonograph for entertainment. He expected that businesses would use it for dictating letters. He manufactured an entire line of Ediphones for office use. But the real future of the phonograph lay in bringing music into peoples homes.Edisons company not only made phonographs but also ran recording studios and produced cylinder recordings of some of the most famous talent of the day. He also tried putting miniature phonographs inside of dolls, but the talking doll was never a commercial success. .....
Electric light
18. Of course, Edisons most famous invention to come out of Menlo Park was the light bulb. Edison didnt invent electric lightsthere were arc lights already, which were similar to todays street lights. They were very, very bright so people didnt want them inside their houses. At home, people used gas lights, but their open flames were dangerous and they flickered a lot.Edison didnt just invent a light bulb, either. He put together what he knew about electricity with what he knew about gas lights and invented a whole system of electric lighting. This meant light bulbs, electricity generators, wires to get the electricity from the power station to the homes, fixtures (lamps, sockets, switches) for the light bulbs, and more. It was like a big jigsaw puzzleand Edison made up the pieces as well as fitted them together.One tough piece was finding the right material for the filamentthat little wire inside the light bulb. He filled more than 40,000 pages with notes before he finally had a bulb that withstood a 40 hour test in his laboratory. In 1879, after testing more that 1600 materials for the right filament, including coconut fiber, fishing line, and even hairs from a friends beard, Edison and his workers finally figured out what to use for the filamentcarbonized bamboo.The first large scale test of the system in the United States took place when Edisons Pearl Street station in New York Citys financial district sent electricity to lights in 25 builidings on September 4, 1882. .....
Starting fresh
19. After the success of Menlo Park, Edison built a new laboratory complex in 1887, bigger and better equipped in every way, in West Orange, New Jersey. There, he worked on all sorts of projects, ranging from movies to ore mining to batteries to cement.There were happy times and sad ones in his personal life. His first wife, Mary, died in 1884 and he remarried two years later to a young socialite named Mina Miller. From the two marriages, he had 6 children, one of whom became governor of New Jersey, another who followed his own career of invention. .....
Failure
20. Through most of the 1890s, Edison focused his attention on the iron mines of northwestern New Jersey. As the demand for the raw materials for steel production grew, Edison thought he could develop a system for retrieving the remaining valuable iron ore from exhausted mines. His idea was to crush the leftover rock and send it past an electromagnet that would attract the iron particles and let the other, worthless material pass.Unfortunately, the system never worked as planned. The iron ore produced was lower in quality than expected, the machinery broke down often, and the fine, crushed iron was difficult to work withand then the price of iron fell. After investing millions of dollars in the iron milling venture, Edison had to admit defeat.Never one to be beaten by failure, though, Edison later redesigned the ore milling machinery for the production of Portland cement, a new building material that was gaining favor around the turn of the 20th century. While his cement works didnt prove to be his biggest money maker, Edison did realize some projects of notefor example, the original Yankee Stadium was made of Edison Portland cement. He also tried to market a line of prefabricated cement houses and cement furniture, but that wasnt a big success .....
Electricity in a box
21. In 1899, Edison began working on a better storage battery for electric vehicles. He thought that electric cars were better than gasoline or steam powered vehicles, but realized that the storage batteries in existence limited the practicality of electric cars. With typical optimism, he announced to the press in 1902 that his batteries would run for 100 miles or more without recharging, and he proclaimed, I do not know how long it would take to wear out one of the batteries, for we have not yet been able to exhaust the possibilities of one of them.Despite those claims, the battery still required a lot of workabout a decade of research went into it. And by that time, cars with gasoline engines were clearly the market leader. Edisons batteries, however, found many other uses in things like railroad signals, miners head lamps, and marine buoys. The storage battery was his most profitable invention. .....
Leisure time
22. Edison was the most famous inventor of his time. Never shy around reporters, Edison spent more time in the spotlight as he grew older, serving on boards, attending public ceremonies, receiving awards, and more.In his leisure time, he became good friends with other famous people, like automobile maker Henry Ford, tire manufacturer Harvey Firestone, and naturalist Luther Burbank. He began taking annual camping trips with them in 1916.Henry Ford was a special admirer of Edisons and recreated the Menlo Park lab at his new museum (now the Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village) in Dearborn, Michigan. Edison and Menlo Park experimenter Francis Jehl reenacted the crucial light bulb experiments as part of the dedication ceremony in 1929. .....
Serving the nation
23. In 1915, Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels asked Edison to head the newly created Naval Consulting Board. The United States was on the brink of entering World War I and the Board was tasked with reviewing inventions of military promise submitted to the government. Though more than 100,000 invention ideas came to the Board, only one of them was ever built. Still, the Naval Consulting Board marked the beginning of increased collaboration between the military and industry.Edisons place as Americas premier inventor was secured in 1928 when he received the Congressional Gold Medal. The Medal noted, He illuminated the path of progress by his inventions. .....
One last grand experiment
24. In 1886, the Edisons built a winter home in Fort Myers, Florida. Edison also established a laboratory on the estate and carried out his last grand experiment there in the late 1920s. To lessen U.S. dependence on foreign sources of natural rubber, Edisons friends Henry Ford and Harvey Firestone encouraged him to find a domestic substitute for rubber.In a search reminiscent of his hunt for the light bulb filament, Edison tested thousands of plant samples. By 1930, he had decided that goldenrod held the most potential as a rubber producer. But Edison was 80 years old by then and in poor health. He never completed his rubber experiments. .....
Legacy
25. Troubled by diabetes and stomach ailments for many years, Edisons health declined and he died at West Orange, N.J. on October 18, 1931. Crowds lined up for blocks to pass by his coffin in the labs library. President Herbert Hoover requested a minute of silenceand darknessto honor the great inventor and at 10 p.m. on October 22, 1931, people around the United States turned off their electric lights.Thomas Alva Edison, the Wizard of Menlo Park, never stopped inventing. At the end of his life, he had 1,093 patents to his name. To this day, no one has topped his record. .....
Death
26. Thomas Edison died of coplications of diabetes on October 18, 1931, in his home, Glenmont in Llewellyn Park in West Orange, New Jersey, which he had purchased in 1886 as a wedding gift for Mina. He is buried behind the home.Mina died in 1947. Edisons last breath is reportedly contained in a test tube at the Henry Ford Museum. Ford reportedly convinced Charles Edison to seal a test tube of air in the inventors room shortly after his death, as a memento. A plaster death mask was also made. .....
Most Expensive Handbags
Extravagance Redefined Lavish Designer Handbags. Could you spend $100,000 on a little black purse? Forbes went in search of the worlds most expensive designer handbags and found a new level of extravagance. Full Story How about a diamondstudded black crocodile bag? Click through the gallery to see .....
Precautions while using Nail Paint
Wait for it to dry. Make sure it is completely dry. Have you ever bought that beautiful nail polish only to get home and find you can only paint with your dominant hand? Most women have! This can be really frustrating and quite disappointing, but with some practice and .....
Wonders of World
Aurora borealis swirls. One of the prettiest sights to see has to be the aurora borealis with its swirls of green, blue, yellow, or pink shimmering and pulsating across the night sky. Caused by a reaction of ionized particles in the atmosphere near the Earth's poles, the No .....
Guglielmo Marconi
Marconis father. Marconis father Guiseppe was much older than his mother and in 1904 Guiseppe died.The time when he died was an important time for Guglielme Marconi, and in addition to this the young Marconi was very focussed on his long distance radio communications .....
Rules to play Hiking
Safe Hiking. We want you to be safe on the trails! The N.H. Fish and Game Department and the White Mountain National Forest are partners in a mountain safety education program called hikeSafe to help get the word out on what hikers need to know.As part of this pr .....
Benefits of ladys finger
It improves your immunity. Ladys finger is rich in Vitamin C with a 100g serving meeting approximately 38% of your daily requirement of the nutrient. Vitamin C is a vital nutrient that helps improves your immunity and protects you from several diseases and infections. Alternat .....
What to Eat in Delhi
Aloo chaat. For this very basic very delicious chaat boiled potatoes (aloo) are cubed fried and spiced up then served hot with toothpicks. These hunks of frying potato on large flat tawas manned by chaat walas are a common sight on Delhis streets. .....
100 Places to visit in India
Rohtang Pass. Pile of corpses Sounds scary? Try our post on the most haunted places in India is how the literal translation is for Rohtang pass, for all the people who lost their lives while crossing the pass and yet in the recent times it has become one of the mo .....
Famous Indian Scientists
Tej P Singh. Tej P Singh is an Indian biophysicist and a scientific leader who has made original and novel contributions in the fields of Rational Structure based drug design, Protein Structure biology and Xray crystallography He has played an active role in the .....
The Best Pokemon
Gardevoir. The Gardevoir Pokemon is quite sophisticated in appearance. This Pokemon s face is partly covered by her flowing hair and it wears a flowing robe that together lends to it a feel of being something like a scheming witch. However witch-like this Pokem .....
Xmas Tree
Add unexpected accents. While evergreens are standard decor at holiday time, theres no limit to how trees are decorated. In place of a tree skirt, think outside the box for your Christmas tree base and use pincones or a collection of apples. Simple white lights keep the set .....
Weird Business Ideas
Spandex bodysuits. Superfan Suits provides sports fanatics will fullbody spandex suits to make an impression at sporting events. The suit is sold in various colours for different teams and covers every inch of the body. The company is now expanding to include multicolo .....
Benefits of Kiwi Fruits
Depression. Inositol is found in kiwifruit. Recent studies have shown that inositol, because of its function as a precursor of an intracellular second messenger system, can be beneficial in the treatment of depression. The fruit is an excellent source of antioxi .....
Benefits of Pomegranates
Maintains Blood Sugar Levels. Although pomegranate juice contains fructose, it does not elevate the blood sugar levels as other fruit juices do. Studies have shown that there was no significant increase in the blood sugar level of diabetic patients who drank this juice daily for .....
Lifestyle Gadgets
UClear Helmet Communicator. Bikes : UClear's HBC100 Moto Helmet Communicator uses military-derived boomless microphones built into both speakers and patented Digital Signal Processing (DSP) technology to isolate your voice and eliminate background noise. Easy Bluetooth pairi .....
Benefits of Rosemary
Precautions. Rosemary is considered safe with no side effects. However, pregnant women should avoid consuming large amounts of rosemary because it may lead to uterine contractions and miscarriage. People with high blood pressure should not take rosemary because i .....
Tips to get ready for Summer
Study Up on Waxing Studios. Chua warns that you need to be extremely careful when selecting your waxing salon. Double-dipping and other unsanitary practices can cause bacteria to grow in communal wax pots, leading to skin infections in sensitive areas later. .....
Marriage Tips
In order to strengthen your marriage. learn to recognize that most arguments have shared responsibility, that both people have valid points and valid reasons for their feelings. .....
Astounding Facts about the human body
Astounding Facts 48. Give a tennis ball a good, hard squee ze. You re using about the same amount of force your heart uses to pump blood out to the body. .....
The Worlds Most Haunted Hotels
Monte Cristo Homestead New South Wales Australia. Built in 1884 by Christopher William Crawley, Monte Cristo Homestead has had its fair share of tragedy. Mrs Crawley who died 23 years after her husband came to her demise aged 92 of a ruptured appendix. Renowed as the dominant ghost haunting Monte Cr .....
Valentines Day Chocolates Ideas
Assorted Truffles. Who wouldnt love this amazing assortment of truffles? Made of dark chocolate, milk chocolate and white confection, these candy centers hold the best fillings. Savor each delectable bite, as you taste flavors like raspberry, rum and peanut butter. .....
Forever Young Naturally Beauty
Emergency Eye Action. From our 30s onward, the fragile skin around the eyes starts to take on a darker hue, to droop under gravity, and to crinkle more easily. Frowning, squinting, and rubbing all take their toll, and the morning after a big night out can leave the face l .....
Flowers
Lilium Candidum. We may rank the White Lily among the very oldest inhabitants of the flower garden, in the time of Gerard it was very generally cultivated, and doubtless at a much earlier period, a plant of such stateliness, so shewy, so fragrant, and at the same tim .....
What to Eat in Tamil Nadu
Dolma. A vegetable, potol, stuffed with fish boiled, deboned, then prepared with Bengali fivespice powder, ginger and onions (alternately coconutvegetable stuffing is used). A misconception once arose that this was a take on the Greek dolmathes or dolmades .....
Best Places to Celebrate New Year
Koh phangan. Fancy celebrating New Years under swaying palm trees and a starlit sky? World famous for its full moon parties and festive spirit, Koh Phangan is a hugely popular destination for travellers the world over. Of course, New Years is no exception. Celebr .....
Wedding
Change Yourself First. Douglas A. Abbott (2003) shares three principles that can lead toward greater marital satisfaction: (1) Change your behavior: Change first. .....
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
2002 Gujarat violence. In 2002, Hindu Muslim violence in the state Gujarat killed more than 1,000 people. Vajpayee officially condemned the violence.Later, Vajpayee is said to have made controversial remarks Wherever there are Muslims in large numbers, they do not want to .....
Benefits of Garlic
Medical Uses for Garlic. Garlic is classified as both a food and medicinal herb. It can and should be eaten as food, but it can also be taken in supplement form to augment a healthy diet when more serious health problems arise. .....
Weird Insects
The Prettiest. The Orchid mantis (Hymenopus coronatus) is a variety of flower mantis usually found in Malaysia and Indonesia. Doesnt the mantis pictured look just like an orchid? They hide in the flowers they resemble, waiting for other delicious insects to alight. .....
Common Household Items That Could Kill You
Lint or Dryers. It s such an easy chore to do cleaning out the lint filter but let s be honest: sometimes we let it slide. That s a mistake, as failing to remove lint from the dryer is the leading cause of 2,900 annual dryer fires, which results in 100 injuries and .....
Benefits of Mangosteen
Vitamin C. Mangosteens are rich in vitamin C and contains about 12% RDA per 100g. Being a powerful water soluble anti oxidant, vitamin C provides resistance against flu like infectious agents and scavenge harmful pro inflammatory free radicals. Therefore consum .....
Benefits of Pumpkins
seeds improves with age. The nutrition in pumpkin seeds improves with age; they are among the few foods that increase in nutritive value as they decompose. According to tests made at the Massachusetts Experimental Station, squash and pumpkin seeds stored for more than five m .....
Tips to get ready for Vacation
Use caffeine wisely. Caffeinated beverages can help enhance your performance and mood if used in a strategic way. Keep in mind that you will need 100 milligrams to 200 milligrams of caffeine (the equivalent of a big cup of coffee or several soft drinks) to get the desire .....
Incredible Sea Arches Around the World
El Arco. El Arco is a sea arches situated in the Cabo Sun Locus in Mexico. It is a beautiful sea arches with its attractive golden colors and is easily accessible by boat. To make a trip in this sea arches would be very amazing. .....
Christmas Poems
I Saw Three Ships. I saw three ships come sailing in On Christmas day, on Christmas day; I saw three ships come sailing in On Christmas day in the morning. And what was in those ships all three, On Christmas day, on Christmas day? And what was in those ships all three .....
Tips for Success in Law School
Get organized. If you arent a planner, you need to become one. Organization will be key to reaching your potential in law school and keeping track of classes, assignments, and other appointments will be vital. In the beginning build into your plan that all that you .....
Benefits of Yams
Brain Power. Yams have the ability to increase learning and memory capacity in the human brain. According to the study, after six weeks of yam intake, there was significant increase in the cognitive abilities of the subjects. It is believed that the unique anti o .....
Delicious Cookie Recipes
Double Dark Chocolate Merlot Cookies. Speaking of grown up cookies dark chocolate and red wine are a luscious combination that only gets better when baked in cookie form. The deep dark color only hints at the sweet mysteries contained within. You?ll have to taste to believe. Thanks to Si .....
Loudest College Football Stadiums
Texas Memorial Stadium. The stadium has a capacity of more than 100,000 people and is the largest by sitting capacity in the Lone Star State. Things are truly bigger in Texas .....
Benefits of Cloves
Fatigue and Drowsiness. Researchers found that sniffing the spicy aroma of cloves reduces drowsiness, irritability, and headaches. It stimulates the mind, increases memory recall, and relieves mental fatigue. .....
The Pool
Restoring a Position. When necessary for balls to be restored or cleaned, the referee will restore disturbed balls to their original positions to the best of his ability. The players must accept the referee?s judgment as to placement. .....
Kitchen Design Ideas
Sage Green Cabinets . While most folks opt for white in the kitchen, this room is bathed in moodier hues. The custom cabinets are painted hunter green and oiled the fir beadboard a golden brown giving the tight, 75 square foot spot a jewel box feel. An ivory apron front .....
Homeopathy
VERATRUM VIR. Veratrum virideAmerican white hellebore.Key Uses:AsthmaIntense feverManic behaviorPleurisyPneumoniaPuerperal feverOrigin : Found throughout northwestern North America.Background : Although once used as a herbal remedy by the Iroquois and Cherokee .....
Simple Science
Our Summer Vacation. Pumps and their Value to Man: It has been asserted by some city health officials that many cases of typhoid fever in cities can be traced to the unsanitary conditions existing in summer resorts. The drinking water of most cities is now under strict s .....
Popular Men Deodorant Brands
Old Spice. High Endurance Invisible Solid Anti Perspirant and Deodorant Fresh by Old Spice. .....
Mythic Creatures That Never Existed But People Believed In Anyway
Kappa. In ancient Japanese folklore the kappa is a water demon that lives in rivers and lakes and devours naughty children. Kappa means child of the river and has the body of a turtle, frog limbs, and a head with a beak. Also at the top of its head there .....
Best Shopping Malls of India
DB City Mall Bhopal 1350000 Sq Ft. DB City mall is largest mall in Madhya Pradesh and first Mall of Bhopal. Owned by Dainik Bhaskar group It has many outlets including Fun Cinemas, Shoppers Stop, HyperCity, McDonald .....
Healthy Shoulder
Dont Squat With a Low Bar Placement. Low bar squats are great because of certain mechanical advantages they give you. They also put the shoulder under a hell of a lot more stress than high bar squatting does. Stick with high bar squatting or find a comfortable happy medium. But never us .....
Benefits of Elderberry
May Fight Influenza. A standardized elderberry extract may offer a safe, natural alternative to treat influenza type A and B, suggest A. Jakay Rones and associates, based on their doubleblind, placebocontrolled study published in the winter 1995 issue of Journal of Alter .....
Benefits of Durian
Anti aging. Durian was often hailed as a tool to battle aging, and was one of the main reasons why people call it the powerking of fruitspower. It turns out that durian has a wide variety of antioxidant properties stemming from its vitamin and organic chemical m .....
Valentines Day Cake Ideas
A Perfect Fit Cake. No need to puzzle over the way these fondant pieces fit together. Position some of the hearts, then use your cookie cutter to remove overlapping areas in an inlay fashion. .....
Benefits of Nectarine
Good source of betacarotene. Nectarines are a good source of betacarotene, an antioxidant that the body converts to vitamin A. Juicy, delicious nectarines are low in calories (100 g just provide 44 calories), and contain no saturated fats. They are indeed packed with numerous he .....
Interior Ideas
Coloring Wisely. Colors have a definite impact on the ambience and atmosphere you create while doing interior design for your room. It is known study that colors directly affect our mood, so when decorating its important to choose wisely. Colors can behave in three w .....
Tips to get ready for College
Take a Small Canister Vacuum. By the end of week one in your new dorm room, you will have figured out that the maid is not coming. You and your roommate will be responsible to keep the bedroom and bathroom floors clean with a small canister vacuum or carpet sweeper. Remember to v .....
Simple Science
Light and Shade. Photography: Let us apply the above process to a real photograph. Suppose we wish to take the photograph of a man sitting in a chair in his library. If the man wore a gray coat, a black tie, and a white collar, these details must be faithfully repres .....
Ideal for Cooking
Paleo Gnocchi. Wondering if there is a paleo alternative to gnocci that achieves the texture and flavor of the real thing? Try this out and find out for yourself. .....
Mahatma Gandhi
Kheda Satyagraha. Kheda was a district in Gujarat. In 1917, there was a crop failure due to famine. Peasants were unable to pay the land revenue. The rules permitted suspension of revenue collection when the crops were less than four annas. According to the peasants e .....
Tips for Best Student in the class
Attend All Your Classes. Now, you might think this was an obvious one. But I speak from experience when I say that many students skip classes for one reason or another. But if you want good grades, there are several reasons why you should attend all your classes Absorb class .....
Healthy Lips
Know thy balms. Look for hydrating ingredients like beeswax, shea butter, vitamin E and almond, jojoba or coconut oils. Good old petroleum jelly (think Vaseline) works well too. If you have sensitive skin, use camphor based medicated lip balms sparingly. (They can .....
Annoying Habits You Should Avoid Doing in Public
Biting nails. This is one intolerable nasty little bad manner. The basic reason is the saliva that envelopes the finger and added to which it ruins the shape of the nail. Moreover while biting your nails you stomach harmful bacteria infested dirt which is stuck un .....
Independence Day
Why do we celebrate Independence Day. Everyone in India knows that India got freedom from the 300 years of British Rule at the stroke of midnight as India moved towards August 15, 1947. Many of us know even the stories of struggle for independence as well. There have been millions of liv .....
Friendship Day
What is friendship 2. Friendship is having a good relationship with someone, who we call a friend. People in a friendship have respect and affection for each other. A friendship is different from a romantic relationship friends do not necessarily love each other romantica .....
Healthy Forehead
Cleanse your facial area but just not too extensively clean. This is one of the most powerful ways to prevent acne! Washing your face two times a day is recommended, this will keep your forehead clean of any bacteria and everyday dead cells and dermis.Generate yourself a cleansing soap, cleaner and moisturizin .....
Benefits of Beetroot
Keeps diabetes under check. For all you diabetics out there, fulfil your sweet craving with a little beetroot. Since it contains sugars, is fat free, low in calories and has a medium glycaemic index it is just what the doctor ordered. A medium glycaemic index means that it rele .....
Ideal for Cooking
Easy Paleo Chicken Wings. Having a party while watching the big game and want to make sure your guests are happy? Chicken wings are a must have. .....
Carrer Success Tips
Straight Talk. When asked about your weaknesses, dont pretend you have none or that your biggest weakness is perfectionism. Its a good way to get an eye roll from your interviewer. Think about your weaknesses before the interview, and how you are able to overcome t .....
Rare Celebrity Pre Fame Shocking Photos
Joe Jonas. Who doesn t love Hawaiian shirts! .....
Benefits of Apples
Eye Disorders. Apples are believed to make the eyes stronger and improve eyesight. They also help in treating night blindness. Much of this is due to the fact that apples are rich in flavonoid compounds and antioxidant phytonutrients, which can reduce the impact of .....
Benefits of Almonds
It tastes better than cows milk. Almond milk doesn?t taste like cows milk, perfect for those who are turned off by the taste. It has its own unique flavor many describe as being light and crisp. Bonus: its versatile, meaning you can use it instead of cow?s milk in recipes that requi .....
Benefits of Lactuca
Hydration. Lettuce juice is an excellent source of hydration at the cellular level. They are refreshing, thirstquenching and help rehydrates our cells and releasing toxins and harmful fats from our congested cells. In addition to all of these benefits which can .....
Essential Photography Tips
Rethink Your Navigation. When searching the web to find examples of photography portfolios, I often found sites that included thumbnails of each image and next prev arrows to navigate forward and backward in the gallery. What I didnt find often, but came across more than I h .....
Tips to get ready for Vacation
Prepare for Your Hawaiian Flight. Hawaii is served by 23 major domestic carriers and 16 major international carriers, including American Airlines and Delta Airlines. Finding flights to Hawaii that work for your budget and needs is easy. Honolulu International Airport (HNL) in Oahu is .....
Valentines Day Class Room Party Ideas
Pom Pom Love Magnets. These are a perfect craft to make and give to your friends in class. These love bugs can be small toys or add on a magnet to the bottom of the heart feet. .....
Biggest things in the World
Largest Two Wheeled Caravan. Trailer Bedouin Caravan largest two wheeled trailer length 20 m, width 12 m, height 12 m, with 8 bedrooms and bathrooms and 4 garages. .....
Chourishi Systems