Precautions while using oxygen therapy

Oxygen therapy
1. Oxygen therapy is a very safe and effective way to manage Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) symptoms, but it requires certain precautions. Oxygen is a flammable gas, according to Livestrong.com, and should be handled accordingly. Its also important to always have enough oxygen on hand. If youre using a portable oxygen .....
Oxygen Use Precautions
2. Oxygen is a safe gas as long as it is used properly. Contrary to what most people believe, oxygen will not explode. Oxygen does, however, support combustion. Therefore, any material that is already burning will burn much faster and hotter in an oxygen enriched atmosphere. It is very important to follow these precautions so that you and your family are safe when you are using your oxygen. .....
Be Prepared
3. Notify your electric company if you are using an oxygen concentrator system so it can make your house a priority during a power outage. Always have backup tanks available, and know how to use them. Families may want to consider purchasing a backup generator for power outages. Be sure to have a functioning smoke detector and fire extinguisher in your home at all times. .....
NO SMOKING
4. Post signs in every room where oxygen is in use. Make sure that absolutely NO SMOKING occurs in the home or in the car when oxygen is in use. Oxygen canisters should be kept at least 5 10 feet away from gas stoves, lighted fireplaces, woodstoves, candles or other sources of open flames & Do not use electric razors while using oxygen. (These are a possible source of sparks. .....
Do not use oil grease or petroleum based products on the equipment
5. Do not use oil, grease or petroleum based products on the equipment. Do not use it near you while you use oxygen. These materials are highly flammable and will burn readily with the presence of oxygen. Avoid petroleum based lotions or creams, like Vaseline, on your face or upper chest. Check the ingredients of such products before purchase. If a skin moisturizer is needed, consider using cocoa butter, aloe vera or other similar products. For lubrication or rehydration of dry nasal passages, use water based products. Your pharmacist or care provider can suggest these. .....
Avoid creating a missile out of the tank
6. Secure an oxygen cylinder to a solidly fixed object to avoid creating a missile out of the tank. This might happen if it was accidentally knocked over and gas was allowed to escape. Do not use oil, grease or petroleum based products on the equipment. Do not use it near you while you use oxygen. These materials are highly flammable and will burn readily with the presence of oxygen. Avoid petroleum based lotions or creams, like Vaseline, on your face or upper chest. Check the ingredients of such products before purchase. If a skin moisturizer is needed, consider using cocoa butter, aloe vera or other similar products. For lubrication or rehydration of dry nasal passages, use water based products. Your pharmacist or care provider can suggest these. .....
Use caution with oxygen tubing
7. Use caution with oxygen tubing so you do not trip over it or become entangled in furniture. Be familiar with the equipment and the safety checks established by the medical equipment provider. Keep their contact telephone numbers, and the numbers for other emergency services, posted near a phone. Do not try to repair broken equipment on your own. Request this service from the oxygen provider. .....
Medical equipment
8. Be familiar with the equipment and the safety checks established by the medical equipment provider. Keep their contact telephone numbers, and the numbers for other emergency services, posted near a phone. Do not try to repair broken equipment on your own. Request this service from the oxygen provider. .....
riority service listing
9. Notify the local fire department, gas and electric companies and telephone company when home oxygen therapy is started. Request a priority service listing. This is for those times when there is a power or telephone failure or repairs are needed on any utility. .....
Use a carrying case specifically designed for oxygen
10. Use a carrying case specifically designed for oxygen. It has the required ventilation. Secure an oxygen cylinder to a solidly fixed object to avoid creating a missile out of the tank. This might happen if it was accidentally knocked over and gas was allowed to escape. .....
Store oxygen containers
11. Store oxygen containers in an upright position in a well ventilated area. Make sure theyre secured so that they dont tip over. Make sure smoke detectors in the home are working. Have fresh batteries installed. Perform monthly checks. Have a fire extinguisher available in the home as well. (Use type ABC.) Create and practice an escape and rescue plan in the event of a fire. .....
Keep extra charged batteries
12. Keep extra charged batteries for your oxygen concentrator. Notify the local fire department, gas and electric companies and telephone company when home oxygen therapy is started. Request a priority service listing. This is for those times when there is a power or telephone failure or repairs are needed on any utility. .....
Keep oxygen tubing
13. Keep oxygen tubing less than 50 feet long so you dont dilute the amount of oxygen that reaches your lungs. Home oxygen therapy is considered a medicine. If you are using home oxygen it is important that you follow your doctors oxygen prescription, which explains when you should use oxygen and the flow rate you should use. The cost of home oxygen therapy is subsidised by the government for people who meet strict eligibility criteria. .....
Keep a fire extinguisher
14. Keep a fire extinguisher in your home, and make sure your smoke detectors are operational. Oxygen is a safe, non explosive gas when handled correctly. However, any material that is already burning will burn much faster and hotter in an oxygen enriched environment, so the following precautions should be observed when you use home oxygen. .....
Around the Home
15. Post No Smoking signs in the room where your oxygen is kept. Post a Oxygen in Use sign on the front door to let visitors and emergency workers (like fire department) know that oxygen is in use at home. Check that all electrical equipment in the area near the oxygen is properly grounded. Secure loose cords and extra tubing so you dont trip on them when using your oxygen system. Secure floor mats and rugs so that you will not trip or fall when using your oxygen system. Never use extension cords with any medical equipment. Be sure doorways, hallways and rooms can accommodate you if you have a portable oxygen system. .....
Do not use cleaning products
16. Do not use cleaning products or other products containing grease or oils, petroleum jelly, alcohol or flammable liquids on or near your oxygen system. These substances cause oxygen to be flammable. .....
Game controllers should not be used with oxygen;
17. Game controllers should not be used with oxygen; the new systems that vibrate and .....
When Using Oxygen
18. Oxygen must be used as your doctor ordered it. Too much or too little can be harmful. Do not change the oxygen flow rate on your own this can lead to serious side effects. If you feel you are not getting enough oxygen, contact your physician and notify your home care supplier. Never use more than 50 feet of oxygen tubing. This can dilute the concentration of oxygen that you are receiving. Do not smoke or allow others to smoke in the same room as your oxygen system. .....
Stay at least 6 feet away
19. Stay at least 6 feet away from any open flame or heat source (candles, gas stove, etc.) when you are using your oxygen system. If you must cook while using oxygen, make sure your tubing will not touch the gas flame or electric burner. (Tuck the tubing in your shirt or position it behind you.) .....
Petroleum based products
20. Petroleum based products (such as Vaseline) should not be used on the face when oxygen is being used. Do not allow alcoholic solutions, oil or grease to come into contact with oxygen supply devices. This includes petroleum jelly. Check that all electrical equipment in the vicinity of the oxygen is properly grounded (earthed). .....
Oxygen Equipment Safety
21. Do not store your oxygen system near any heat sources or open flames. Do not expose your oxygen equipment to electrical appliances (such as electric razors, hair dryers, electric blankets, etc.). Check that all electrical equipment in the area near the oxygen is properly grounded. Keep the oxygen system away from aerosol cans or sprays, including air fresheners or hair spray. These products are very flammable. Keep the oxygen system clean and dust free. The person who delivers your oxygen will show you how to do this. Keep the oxygen system in a place where it wont get knocked over. .....
Do not carry liquid oxygen in a backpack
22. Always store your oxygen equipment in a well ventilated area. An oxygen cylinder must be secured at all times; put it in a cart or lay it down flat. Do not carry liquid oxygen in a backpack or other enclosed space. Carrying cases, shoulder or hand bags, shoulder straps and backpack oxygen units are available to provide proper ventilation for the unit to ensure safety. Take precautions to avoid skin contact when filling your portable liquid oxygen tank, as frost buildup could cause injury. .....
Home oxygen precautions
23. The normal air we all breathe is made up mainly of nitrogen gas, with only 20 per cent being oxygen. Some people with medical conditions that affect their breathing need a higher concentration of oxygen than this, and use supplemental (extra) oxygen at home as part of their treatment. .....
Home oxygen therapy
24. There are 2 main types of equipment used in Australia for home oxygen therapy: 1 oxygen concentrators, which filter the nitrogen out of the air, providing almost pure oxygen; and 2 oxygen cylinders, which contain compressed oxygen gas. Home oxygen therapy is considered a medicine. If you are using home oxygen it is important that you follow your doctors oxygen prescription, which explains when you should use oxygen and the flow rate you should use. The cost of home oxygen therapy is subsidised by the government for people who meet strict eligibility criteria. .....
Oxygen safety precautions
25. Oxygen is a safe, non explosive gas when handled correctly. However, any material that is already burning will burn much faster and hotter in an oxygen enriched environment, so the following precautions should be observed when you use home oxygen. Keep the oxygen at least 3 metres from any open flame or heat source, such as candles or a gas stove, or from anything that could cause a spark. Do not smoke or let anyone else smoke near the oxygen equipment. Avoid using anything flammable near the oxygen, including petrol, cleaning fluid, and aerosol cans or sprays such as fresheners or hairspray. .....
Avoid using electrical appliances
26. Avoid using electrical appliances such as hairdryers and razors while oxygen is in use. Make sure you have smoke alarms in your house. Keep the oxygen equipment clean and dust free. Always plug your oxygen concentrator into a grounded electrical outlet. Never use an extension cord or power board. .....
Always plug your oxygen concentrator
27. Always plug your oxygen concentrator into a grounded electrical outlet. Never use an extension cord or power board. As the oxygen concentrator becomes hot when in use, locate it in a well ventilated area, away from curtains or drapes. Have your oxygen concentrator inspected and serviced regularly according to the suppliers instructions. Store oxygen cylinders in an upright secure position in a well ventilated area away from any open flame, heat source or direct sunlight. Do not cover with cloth or plastic. Handle oxygen equipment with care to avoid damaging cylinders. .....
Check with your state or territory department
28. Secure and transport oxygen cylinders correctly. Check with your state or territory department of transport regarding the transport of oxygen in cars as safety standards may vary from state to state. Use the correct pressure gauge and regulator. .....
Do not store full and empty cylinders together
29. When a cylinder is almost empty, close the valve and mark the cylinder as empty. Do not store full and empty cylinders together. Secure and transport oxygen cylinders correctly. Check with your state or territory department of transport regarding the transport of oxygen in cars as safety standards may vary from state to state. .....
Discuss with your doctor
30. If you have been prescribed oxygen 24 hours a day you may need a back up oxygen cylinder. Discuss with your doctor whether this is the case for you. When a cylinder is almost empty, close the valve and mark the cylinder as empty. Do not store full and empty cylinders together. .....
Oxygen safety
31. Oxygen makes things burn much faster. Think of what happens when you blow into a fire; it makes the flame bigger. If you are using oxygen in your home, you must take extra care to stay safe. If you have been prescribed oxygen 24 hours a day you may need a back up oxygen cylinder. Discuss with your doctor whether this is the case for you. .....
Have your home ready
32. Make sure you have working smoke detectors and a working fire extinguisher in your home. If you move around the house with your oxygen, you may need more than one fire extinguisher in different locations.Smoking can be very dangerous. No one should smoke in a room where you or your child is using oxygen. Put a NO SMOKING sign in every room where oxygen is used. In a restaurant, keep at least 6 feet away from any source of fire, such as a stove or fireplace. .....
Be careful in the kitchen
33. Be careful with your oxygen when you cook. 1 Keep oxygen away from the stove top and oven. 2 Watch out for splattering grease. It can catch fire. 3 Keep children with oxygen away from the stove top and oven. 4 Cooking with a microwave is OK. .....
Other safety tips
34. Do not store your oxygen in a trunk, box, or small closet. Storing your oxygen under the bed is OK if air can move freely under the bed. Keep liquids that may catch fire away from your oxygen. This includes cleaning products that contain oil, grease, alcohol, or other liquids that can burn. Do not use Vaseline or other petroleum based creams and lotions on your face or upper part of your body unless you talk to your respiratory therapist or doctor first. .....
References
35. American Thoracic Society. Why do I need oxygen therapy? http://www.thoracic.org/clinical/copd guidelines/for patients/why do i need oxygen therapy.php. Accessed on May 8, 2014. National Home Oxygen Patients Association. Understanding oxygen therapy: a patient guide to long term supplemental oxygen. http://www.homeoxygen.org/assets/docs/Understanding%20Oxygen%20Therapy%202013.pdf. Accessed on May 8, 2014. .....
Initial setup
36. You need to be informed about how to use your equipment safely and correctly. Do not accept delivery of unfamiliar equipment until your oxygen supply company has taught you how to use it. Check the label on every oxygen container before you use it. Liquid oxygen should have Oxygen Refrigerated Liquid U.S.P. on the label. Compressed oxygen cylinders should have Oxygen Compressed U.S.P. on the label. If the label of a container reads differently, do not use the container. Call your oxygen supply company immediately. Keep a new tank of oxygen available at all times. Even if you use an oxygen machine (concentrator), you will need the tank for leaving the house and during power failures. Have a back up oxygen system to use in an emergency. .....
Order a new supply of oxygen two to three days
37. Order a new supply of oxygen two to three days before needed or when the gauge reads 1/4 full.If a tank is used, be sure it is attached to a stable cart so it wont fall or roll. Keep a written list of what rate (how much) oxygen being used. Never increase the flow rate on your oxygen without your physicians permission or above the prescribed level. .....
Keep the phone number
38. Keep the phone number near of the company that brings the oxygen to your home. In the event of problems, call them. Oxygen is a safe gas as long as it is used properly. Contrary to what most people believe, oxygen will not explode. Oxygen does, however, support combustion. Therefore, any material that is already burning will burn much faster and hotter in an oxygen enriched atmosphere. .....
Using and maintaining tanks
39. Be sure to know how to turn the oxygen on and off, and set the flow rate. Check the tubing if you are not sure the oxygen is coming through the tube. Look for kinks, blockages, or to see if the tubing has become disconnected from the oxygen container. Also check if the oxygen is turned on. Use a water based lubricant, rather than petroleum jelly, on the lips and cheeks. .....
Patients can put a small piece of gauze
40. If the nasal cannula rubs the upper lip, patients can put a small piece of gauze or fabric under it for padding. There are also commercial products that make this tubing more comfortable for the nose and ears. Keep all cords and tubing neat. Do not leave cords or tubing running across an area where you or someone else may trip on it. Keep oxygen containers from becoming too hot. Store containers in an area with good air flow. Never leave an oxygen container in a car trunk or a hot vehicle. .....
Do not use an extension cord
41. Do not use an extension cord with an oxygen concentrator. Also, do not plug the concentrator into an outlet that has other appliances plugged into it. Turn off your oxygen concentrator and use a backup oxygen system if you have any of the following problems. Call the company that brought the oxygen system to your home to tell them of your problems. .....
Avoiding electrical shock
42. When using an oxygen concentrator, plug the power cord into a grounded electrical outlet. A grounded outlet has three holes, and can take a three pronged plug. Never alter a plug or use an adapter that allows you to plug a three pronged plug into a two hole outlet. This can ruin your electrical equipment, cause an electrical shock, and even cause a fire. Do not plug in your oxygen concentrator if the cord looks damaged. Call your oxygen supply company. Do not use an extension cord to plug in your oxygen concentrator. Do not plug the concentrator into an outlet that has other appliances plugged into it. Overloading an electrical outlet can cause a fire. Unplug the concentrator before cleaning the unit or the filter. Make sure your hands are dry before you plug the concentrator back in.Make sure your oxygen supply company services and inspects your oxygen concentrator regularly. It should be serviced every 9,000 hours of use. .....
Keep oxygen containers secured in an upright position
43. Oxygen containers should always be secured in a stand, holder, or to a fixed object. Containers can be damaged if they fall over. Oxygen in cylinders is stored under pressure. If the cylinder is damaged, it can become a missile and shoot off at a high rate of speed. This may cause serious injury. Aim the cylinder valve away from you and other people when opening or closing the valve. Always open or close the valve slowly. .....
Oxygen supply company
44. If an oxygen container is dropped or damaged in some way, do not use it. If you hear loud hissing from an oxygen cylinder after it is damaged, get away from it immediately. Let your oxygen supply company know about any cylinders that may be damaged. .....
Oxygen hissing
45. If you hear oxygen hissing or if the tank empties too fast, turn off all flames like candles. Remember to also turn off the pilot light on a stove. Open windows to help clear out any extra oxygen. Call the company that brought the oxygen system to your home right away. .....
Avoiding fires
46. Oxygen can cause fires. It is very important patients protect themselves, their family, and their house when using oxygen. Call your fire department and tell them that oxygen is being used in the house. Keep a working fire extinguisher within easy reach. Make sure you and your family knows how to use it. Do not smoke or go near sparks or flame while using oxygen. Keep sparks and flames away from tanks, oxygen machines, and tubing. If a fire starts, turn off the oxygen right away and leave the house. Keep the oxygen container away from heat and open flames, such as a gas stove. Keep the oxygen container upright. Turn off the oxygen system when it is not being used. .....
Do not put the oxygen tubing under clothing
47. Do not put the oxygen tubing under clothing, bed covers, furniture, or carpets Put signs on all the doors of your house to let visitors and emergency personnel know that oxygen is in use. No smoking signs should be posted as well. Do not use oil, lubricants, or anything greasy on or around your oxygen equipment. Do not use anything flammable while you are wearing your oxygen. This includes cleaning fluid, gasoline, paint thinner, aerosols, or alcohol containing sprays. .....
Do not use electric razors
48. Do not use electric razors, hair dryers, or any electrical appliance that has a motor while you are wearing your oxygen. Avoid using appliances with control boxes, such as heating pads, while wearing your oxygen. The control box may cause a spark.If a fire starts, turn off the oxygen right away and leave the house. Keep the oxygen container away from open flames, such as candles, fireplaces, gas stoves, or hot water heaters. Do not go within eight feet of an open flame while you are wearing your oxygen. Turn your oxygen container or concentrator off when you are not using your oxygen. .....
Watch for signs of oxygen leaking from the container
49. Watch for signs of oxygen leaking from the container. If you hear a loud hissing from your tank or if it empties too fast, stay away from the container. Open windows to help clear out any extra oxygen in the room. Call the company that brought the oxygen system to your home right away. Do not use an extension cord with an oxygen concentrator. Also, do not plug the concentrator into an outlet that has other appliances plugged into it. Turn off your oxygen concentrator and use a backup oxygen system if you have any of the following problems. Call the company that brought the oxygen system to your home to tell them of your problems. .....
Position Patient
50. Place the patient in the semi Fowlers position for ease of breathing. Do not store your oxygen in a trunk, box, or small closet. Storing your oxygen under the bed is OK if air can move freely under the bed. Keep liquids that may catch fire away from your oxygen. This includes cleaning products that contain oil, grease, alcohol, or other liquids that can burn. .....
Record the Procedure on the Nursing Notes
51. Record the time the treatment was initiated, the method used, the rate of flow, and the patients response to treatment given. Oxygen therapy is a very safe and effective way to manage Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) symptoms, but it requires certain precautions. Oxygen is a flammable gas, according to Livestrong.com, and should be handled accordingly. Its also important to always have enough oxygen on hand. If youre using a portable oxygen concentrator, take measures to ensure that youll have oxygen in the event of a power outage. .....
Manage the Patient and Equipment at Regular Intervals
52. .....
AFETY PRECAUTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH OXYGEN THERAPY
53. A Post Oxygen and No Smoking signs. These signs should be posted on the cylinder in use, in oxygen storage areas, and at entrances to a ward or room where oxygen is in use. The chief danger in using oxygen is fire. The pressure of oxygen in increased concentrations makes all materials more combustible. Things that burn slowly in ordinary air will burn violently and even explosively in the presence of increased oxygen. b. Inform the patient and visitors of the requirement for no smoking and no open flames in the room. None of these should be a problem in the modern hospital since smoking is not allowed in any Army hospital or other federal buildings; however, in third world countries, this may not be the case.c. Ensure that oil or grease is not used around the oxygen fittings. (Petroleum based products will burn.) d. If an oxygen tank is used, secure it away from the door and high traffic areas to reduce potential unauthorized tampering of cylinder gauges and to reduce the possibility of the cylinder being knocked over and the valve being damaged or broke. .....
Medical intervention
54. Oxygen therapy is the administration of oxygen as a medical intervention, which can be for a variety of purposes in both chronic and acute patient care. Oxygen is essential for cell metabolism, and in turn, tissue oxygenation is essential for all normal physiological functions. High blood and tissue levels of oxygen can be helpful or damaging, depending on circumstances and oxygen therapy should be used to benefit the patient by increasing the supply of oxygen to the lungs and thereby increasing the availability of oxygen to the body tissues, especially when the patient is suffering from hypoxia and/or hypoxaemia. .....
Indications for use
55. Oxygen is used as a medical treatment in both chronic and acute cases, and can be used in hospital, pre hospital or entirely out of hospital, dependent on the needs of the patient and their medical professionals opinions. When possible, stay at least 6 feet away from heat sources and open flames when youre using oxygen, or when youre storing tanks. .....
Use in chronic conditions
56. A common use of supplementary oxygen is in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the occurrence of chronic bronchitis or emphysema, a common long term effect of smoking, who may require additional oxygen to breathe either during a temporary worsening of their condition, or throughout the day and night. It is indicated in COPD patients with PaO 2 .....
Compressed gas storage
57. The oxygen gas is compressed in a gas cylinder, which provides a convenient storage, without the requirement for refrigeration found with liquid storage. Large oxygen cylinders hold 6,500 litres (230 .....
Instant usage
58. The use of an electrically powered oxygen concentratorcite_ref 10cite_ref 10[10] or a chemical reaction based unit can create sufficient oxygen for a patient to use immediately, and these units (especially the electrically powered versions) are in widespread usage for home oxygen therapy and portable personal oxygen, with the advantage of being continuous supply without the need for additional deliveries of bulky cylinders. .....
Delivery
59. Various devices are used for administration of oxygen. In most cases, the oxygen will first pass through a pressure regulator, used to control the high pressure of oxygen delivered from a cylinder (or other source) to a lower pressure. This lower pressure is then controlled by a flowmeter, which may be preset or selectable, and this controls the flow in a measure such as litres per minute (lpm). The typical flowmeter range for medical oxygen is between 0 and 15 lpm with some units able to obtain up to 25 liters per minute. Many wall flowmeters using a Thorpe tube design are able to be dialed to flush which is beneficial in emergency situations. .....
Supplemental oxygen
60. Many patients require only a supplementary level of oxygen in the room air they are breathing, rather than pure or near pure oxygen, and this can be delivered through a number of devices dependent on the situation, flow required and in some instances patient preference.A nasal cannula (NC) is a thin tube with two small nozzles that protrude into the patients nostrils. It can only comfortably provide oxygen at low flow rates, 2 .....
As a drug delivery route
61. Oxygen and other compressed gasses are used in conjunction with a nebulizer for topical delivery of medications to the upper and lower airways. Nebulizers use compressed gas to propel liquid medication into an aerosol, with specific therapeutically sized droplets, for deposition in the appropriate, desired airway. Compressed gas, usually at flows of 8 10 L/min, is used to nebulize medications, saline and sterile water into a theraputeic aerosol for inhalation. In the clinical setting room air (ambient mix of several gasses), Oxygen and Heli Ox gas are commonly used to nebulize small, large and continuous volumes of liquid. .....
Filtered oxygen masks
62. Filtered oxygen masks have the ability to prevent exhaled, potentially infectious particles from being released into the surrounding environment. These masks are normally of a closed design such that leaks are minimized and breathing of room air is controlled through a series of one way valves. Filtration of exhaled breaths is accomplished either by placing a filter on the exhalation port, or through an integral filter that is part of the mask itself. These masks first became popular in the Toronto (Canada) healthcare community during the 2003 SARS Crisis. SARS was identified as being respiratory based and it was determined that conventional oxygen therapy devices were not designed for the containment of exhaled particles. Common practices of having suspected patients wear a surgical mask was confounded by the use of standard oxygen therapy equipment. In 2003, the HiOx80 oxygen mask was released for sale. The HiOx80 mask is a closed design mask that allows a filter to be placed on the exhalation port. Several new designs have emerged in the global healthcare community for the containment and filtration of potentially infectious particles. Other designs include the ISO O 2 oxygen mask, the Flo2Max oxygen mask, and the O Mask. The use of oxygen masks that are capable of filtering exhaled particles is gradually becoming a recommended practice for pandemic preparation in many jurisdictions. .....
Negative effects
63. Many EMS protocols indicate that oxygen should not be withheld from any patient, while other protocols are more specific or circumspect. However, there are certain situations in which oxygen therapy is known to have a negative impact on a patient .....
Oxygen therapy while on aircraft
64. In the United States, most airlines restrict the devices allowed on board aircraft. As a result passengers are restricted in what devices they can use. Some airlines will provide cylinders for passengers with an associated fee. Other airlines allow passengers to carry on approved portable concentrators. However the lists of approved devices varies by airline so passengers need to check with any airline they are planning to fly on. .....
Use in acute conditions
65. Oxygen is widely used in emergency medicine, both in hospital and by emergency medical services or those giving advanced first aid. In the pre hospital environment, high flow oxygen is definitively indicated for use in resuscitation, major trauma, anaphylaxis, major haemorrhage, shock, active convulsions and hypothermia. It may also be indicated for any other patient where their injury or illness has caused hypoxaemia, although in this case oxygen flow should be moderated to achieve target oxygen saturation levels, based on pulse oximetry (with a target level of 94 .....
Storage and sources
66. Gas cylinders containing oxygen to be used at home. When in use a pipe is attached to the cylinders regulator and then to a mask that fits over the patients nose and mouth. A home oxygen concentrator in situ in an emphysema patients house. Oxygen can be separated by a number of methods, including chemical reaction and fractional distillation, and then either used immediately or stored for future use. .....
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Toe Nail Designs. Below you can find beautiful, elegant and simple design.The beauty of this design is that only in one nail they did designs.Others are just supporter and that saves lot of time.Yet all together this design is marvelous. .....
Amazing Rangoli Designs And Patterns
Amazing Rangoli Designs And Patterns 1. This design is apt for those who are just learning to make rangolis. The designs are kept minimum and simple so that it is easy to create. Though simple, it is colourful and can be used for Diwali, as we see in the picture. The diyas add brightness .....
Amazing US Lakes for Summer Vacation
Wallowa Lake Oregon. Wallowa Lake is located about one mile south of Joseph Oregon. Even in summer the lake is surrounded by snow tipped mountains. There is Wallowa Lake State Park on the south side of the lake along with the small houses and several small businesses. Yo .....
Reasons You Should Brush Your Teeth
Low birth weight. Antibodies to the bacterial infection in the mother have been found in the umbilical cord and placental blood of the baby after delivery. Not only does this mean complications at birth, but it can lead to numerous other issues as well. Unfortunately .....
Science Experiments Ideas
Buddel thermometer. Pour some coloured water into a bottle. Push a drinking straw through a hole bored in the cork so that it dips into the water. Seal the cork with glue. If you place your hands firmly on the bottle, the water rises up the straw.The air enclosed in the .....
Selfie Ideas
Watch out for photo bombers. The standard culprits include younger siblings, crying children, and dogs taking a bathroom break on the lawn behind you. Before you snap your selfie, take a quick look around to make sure that no one and nothing is lurking in the shadows, waiting to .....
Benefits of Kiwi Fruits
Supports healthy birth. It has four peaches' worth of folate, which is essential for women before and during pregnancy. Folate helps to develop the blood cells for the baby in the womb. Good source of pectin, a soluble fiber that helps control blood cholesterol levels which .....
Types of love in your Life
The Love That Changed You. We can always look back to that one person whose love was either too good or too bad for us that it changed us. They could have showed us how dark abyss could be turned into a whimsical garden or they could have rocked the solid walls that guarded ou .....
Precautions while using Microwaves
Do not stand directly against an oven. Do not stand directly against an oven for long periods of time while it is operating. Materials containing water, for example foods, fluids or tissues, readily absorb microwave energy, which is then converted into heat. This Information Sheet discuss .....
Ways To Save Money On Your Dream Wedding
Resell as much as you can. When you plan on your big dream wedding you need to keep the expense in mind. Weddings do not come cheap and can set you back by quite a sum of money. The best way to beat this problem is to chalk out a budget plan which will help you save something. .....
Greatest Female In Video Game History
Chun Li. Besides being probably the most iconic fighting game character ever, ChunLi is also a true heroine shes an undercover Interpol officer seeking revenge on the criminals responsible for her fathers death. She was even the first female character in a f .....
Most Crowded Places on Earth
Street. Lined with bars, hotels, and shops Oxford Street in London attracts over 200 million people every year. Recently authorities were even forced to reconstruct Oxford Circus and double the amount of pavement, an idea they got from the Shibuya Crossing i .....
Worlds Biggest Islands
Java Indonesia. Java, lying between Sumatra and Bali, is a volcanostudded island that s at the geographic and economic center of Indonesia, and home to more than half its people. Java s largest city is modern, sprawling Jakarta, the nation s capital. Its home to the .....
Weird Fish
Amphipod. The unusual animal, called Phronima, an Amphipod, is one of the many strange species recently found on an expedition to a deep-sea mountain range in the North Atlantic. .....
Benefits of Pomegranates
Keeps you looking younger. Ever wondered why we grow old and our skin develops wrinkles and other signs of ageing? Well, it is because of free radical damage that affects your cells. Pomegranates are rich in antioxidants which help delay this process. Therefore, eating pomegra .....
Wedding
Dont expect to know what to expect. Nobody is entirely prepared for life strapped to another person. .....
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